Monday, May 20, 2024

SE Radio 567: Dave Cross on GitHub Actions : Software program Engineering Radio

Dave CrossDave Cross, proprietor of Magnum Options and writer of GitHub Actions Necessities (Clapham Technical Press), speaks with SE Radio host Gavin Henry about GitHub actions, the worth they supply, and one of the best practices for utilizing them in your tasks. Cross describes the huge vary of issues that builders can do with GitHub Actions, together with some use instances you would possibly by no means have considered. They begin with some common dialogue of CI/CD after which take into account the three foremost forms of occasions that drive GitHub actions earlier than digging in to particulars about fine-grained motion occasions, Motion Market, contexts, yaml, docker base photos, self-hosted runners, and extra. They additional discover id administration, permissions, dependency administration, saving cash, and tips on how to maintain your secrets and techniques secret.

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Gavin Henry 00:00:16 Welcome to Software program Engineering Radio. I’m your host, Gavin Henry, and at this time my visitor is Dave Cross. Dave has been programming professionally since 1988 and a Perl consumer for a really very long time. I really got here throughout Dave in 2010 once I was an enormous Perl Catalyst consumer. He’s the writer of Information Mining with Perl from Manning and a co-author of Perl Template Toolkit from O’Reilly. Dave runs and owns Magnum Options, an open-aource growth consultancy primarily based in London. His newest e-book is known as GitHub Actions from Clapham Technical Press. Dave, welcome to Software program Engineering Radio. Is there something I missed that you simply’d like so as to add?

Dave Cross 00:00:58 Hello, thanks for having me. No, simply to emphasise what you mentioned about my profession beginning in 1988, which implies I’m very previous, and the truth that I’m keen about a few of these newer applied sciences is as a result of a lot of my profession was spent with out them.

Gavin Henry 00:01:15 So that you’ve seen the earlier than the place it was all handbook and all the things.

Dave Cross 00:01:19 Completely. That is a lot simpler.

Gavin Henry 00:01:21 Glorious. Excellent. So we’re going to have a chat about, clearly, this present’s about GitHub actions. We’re going to speak in regards to the worth they supply and talk about an instance undertaking that implements the primary components of steady integration and steady deployment with a couple of surprises alongside the way in which. So let’s get began. Steady integration and steady deployment. Let’s begin with the fundamentals. Dave, what’s CI?

Dave Cross 00:01:45 So CI, it’s automating the bits of your undertaking which imply you could measure the standard of your undertaking, I suppose, It signifies that each time you commit some new code to your code base or modified code into your code base, you’ll be able to run processes which do issues like run unit assessments, run a linter towards your code base, and carry out different high quality metrics like possibly measuring the complexity of the code or the protection of your assessments, that form of factor. The form of numbers that may find yourself on a dashboard that’s on a monitor hanging above the event workforce so that everybody who walks previous the workforce can see how good your code is.

Gavin Henry 00:02:33 In the event you had been to come back throughout a brand new undertaking on GitHub or your beneficial one, what could be the very first thing you’d take a look at to see what the continual integration could be?

Dave Cross 00:02:42 I believe the very first thing that I’d be taking a look at is the protection. Simply to see how nicely the take a look at suite matches the quantity of code that you simply’ve really obtained within the undertaking. Having a take a look at suite that covers the code base nicely means that you’ve got extra — it’s simpler to vary code and know that you simply’re not breaking issues.

Gavin Henry 00:03:04 Yeah, it provides you that security web, doesn’t it? And clearly you’d need there to be some sort of steady integration within the undertaking.

Dave Cross 00:03:11 Sure, yeah.

Gavin Henry 00:03:13 So that may be the very first thing hopefully. What’s steady deployment?

Dave Cross 00:03:17 In order that’s the step that comes after steady integration. It signifies that as soon as you might be pleased that your code is sweet and even higher than it was beforehand, then you’ll be able to routinely take that code out of your GitHub server or no matter supply code system you might be utilizing and transfer it into manufacturing in a way that’s straightforward to breed. So, hopefully simply urgent a button and on the finish of some processes operating, the code is up in your manufacturing server and operating.

Gavin Henry 00:03:56 Glorious. Thanks. For the listeners who need dig into CICD — steady integration, steady deployment — extra, we’ve really accomplished a full present on it, which was present 498 with James Socol on Steady Integration, Steady Supply. We’ve accomplished episode 554 on Behavioral Code Evaluation, which was actually good. Episode 544, 482, 440, 424 and an older one on Steady Supply, Episode 221. I’ll put these hyperlinks within the present notes, however it helps develop on this very mild overview I’ve simply accomplished with Dave. So earlier than I transfer us on to the core of the present, which is GitHub Actions, is there a form of low-hanging fruit to place into CI as a security web and one thing in CD, or does it rely on the undertaking and you recognize, the software program developer?

Dave Cross 00:04:47 To a big extent, I suppose it does rely on the undertaking, however as I mentioned earlier, I believe getting your unit assessments operating in some form of CI framework may be very helpful.

Gavin Henry 00:04:58 Glorious. And there’s easy issues on GitHub, like, I suppose it is determined by the undertaking, just like the Dependabot factor or what’s their static evaluation one? CodeQL, I believe it.

Dave Cross 00:05:09 Sure. Yeah. Yeah. And there’s issues that do issues like in search of secret and issues like that.

Gavin Henry 00:05:16 Yeah. Is dependent upon what you’ve obtained in your undertaking I suppose.

Dave Cross 00:05:19 Yeah.

Gavin Henry 00:05:21 Glorious. Thanks. Proper, so now we’re going to dig into GitHub actions. A lot of the present will likely be spent between this part and the instance undertaking. Please bear with us. So Dave, what’s or are GitHub actions?

Dave Cross 00:05:35 So GitHub actions is a, I used to be attempting to, attempting to work out when it was that GitHub Actions was launched. I reckon it’s about a few years previous, and listeners could have come throughout product like Jenkins or Travis CI or Circle CI, which many tasks, or lots of my purchasers, are utilizing to do CI and CD. GitHub actions is GitHub’s reply to that. It means that you can outline workflows and the definition of these workflows really sit inside your code repo. After which, in response to numerous occasions, GitHub will hearth up a container and run by means of the steps in your course of, which lets you do CI and CD, however it isn’t restricted to that. And as we’ll, I’m certain, point out later there are many different issues that you are able to do with it.

Gavin Henry 00:06:32 Yeah, I believe for a very long time, GitHub, because it was GitHub or earlier than Microsoft, there wasn’t any GitHub actions. So that you had to make use of a type of, after which they had been fairly late to the sport, weren’t they, for varied causes?

Dave Cross 00:06:45 Sure, sure. However I suppose they countered that by developing with one thing that’s extra highly effective than Jenkins or Travis CI as a result of, as I say, it’s not simply restricted to CI and CD.

Gavin Henry 00:06:58 Yeah, precisely. And also you talked about there that it does issues primarily based on sure occasions. Would that be solely outlined as an event-driven structure?

Dave Cross 00:07:06 Sure, it’s an event-driven structure, however I suppose you have to be fairly liberal in your definition of what an “occasion” is as a result of it’s event-driven to the extent you could set off your workflow to run when one thing is pushed to your code base: if you get a pull request to your code base, when somebody raises a problem in your code base, all these sorts of apparent supply code management occasions. However there are different issues. It principally provides you an entire cron job implementation. You possibly can set off occasions, set off workflows on time purely; you’ll be able to set off workflows manually. You may get a button on the workflow web page and say simply run this now. Or the opposite factor you are able to do is principally use it as an online hook. So you’ll be able to simply make an HTTP request GitHub, and it’ll set off your workflow. So there’s loads of alternative ways of operating a workflow.

Gavin Henry 00:08:07 Oh, that’s good. It’s one I wasn’t conscious of is the net hook choice. And I’d prefer to discover with you, I believe it’s on the agenda, when any individual raises a problem as nicely, what you are able to do with that. So I presume the proprietor of the undertaking must create some sort of definition of what they need to occur with GitHub Actions. Can you’re taking me by means of what that appears like?

Dave Cross 00:08:31 Yeah. So inside your repo, GitHub have outlined there’s now a dot GitHub listing, which you’ll be able to create. And that’s the place GitHub-specific information go. One instance is, you talked about earlier, dependabot; and you’ll put a YAML file in there, dependabot.yaml, and that defines what sort of dependabot of interactions you need. But additionally inside that dot GitHub listing is a workflows listing. And inside there you’ll be able to create as many YAML information as you want. And every of these is a workflow definition. So inside a workflow definition, there are a variety of steps. There’s form of a header, which supplies the workflow a reputation, tells it what structure you need it to run on, and I suppose we’ll come again to that in additional element a bit afterward. After which there’s various jobs which outline the code. And jobs might be damaged down into particular person steps, and every particular person step is a bit of code that you simply need to run. In order that, that’s form of the high-level take a look at what a workflow definition seems like.

Gavin Henry 00:09:42 And earlier than I transfer on to the following query, people who don’t know what dependabot is, I suppose higher outline it. Do you need to have a go, Dave?

Dave Cross 00:09:49 Sure. So dependabot is a — I’m undecided whether or not it comes from GitHub or whether or not they’ve introduced it in from one other firm. It does various issues. The factor once I first noticed it was once I began having some GitHub pages, web sites inside my repos, that had been generated utilizing varied node purposes. And dependabot would come alongside each occasionally and examine dependencies inside my node purposes and make it possible for I wasn’t operating variations that had identified safety leaks. And it wouldn’t simply examine and provides me a warning, it could really produce a pull request, which fixes the issue by bringing the dependency as much as a identified good model. It really works in various completely different ecosystems, checking for outdated dependencies which have safety points.

Gavin Henry 00:10:43 Thanks. So simply to summarize, GitHub has some predefined issues it needs to see in its undertaking repository, which might be — in your file system, it could appear like a hidden folder, however it’s really dot Gitrhub. GitHub-specific issues dwell in there, relying on what you’re attempting to do. However usually there’s a workflows, is it flows?

Dave Cross 00:11:05 Workflows listing, sure.

Gavin Henry 00:11:07 Yeah. After which inside there, something that may be a, does it should be a .YML file, or…?

Dave Cross 00:11:15 I believe so, yeah. I’ve by no means tried placing the rest there, however yeah.

Gavin Henry 00:11:18 Me both. So something in there that it may possibly parse and determine, it could typically present up beneath the Actions tab on the GitHub undertaking?

Dave Cross 00:11:27 That’s proper, sure.

Gavin Henry 00:11:29 And simply to the touch on the event-driven factor, I presume you’ll be able to go to the Actions tab in your undertaking and click on Go to run one thing?

Dave Cross 00:11:38 Yeah, so I talked about there being a form of header part within the workflow definition file. One of many choices there may be title, as I discussed, however an important one is On — simply O-N — and that defines how your workflow is triggered. And so, it could be an inventory of various methods that you really want it to set off on a pull request or a push. And a type of is a particular worth referred to as workflow batch. And I can by no means keep in mind whether or not it’s an underscore or a touch, however in case you’ve obtained On Workflow Batch in your workflow definition file, then if you go to the web page for that motion in your repo, there will likely be a button that simply says “run Motion” or “run workflow.” And also you simply push that and it runs it.

Gavin Henry 00:12:26 So you could possibly use that to really go to manufacturing — so it’s not automated; somebody has to push it?

Dave Cross 00:12:34 Sure.

Gavin Henry 00:12:35 I didn’t know that. Glorious. Can the Actions use Docker photos, or in any other case how do the Actions get the binaries they want? , as in that’s your undertaking being constructed right into a binary or libraries it wants or one thing.

Dave Cross 00:12:48 So the Actions all run on containers, on Docker containers. GitHub provide a few of their very own normal containers and there are ones for varied in style working methods. They are going to do some mild enhancements to them. For instance, they are going to set up the GitHub command line bundle. So that you’ve obtained entry to that. So with out doing something intelligent, it’s going to simply run on a fairly normal working system container. However you might be completely in a position to outline your individual container. So in case you are utilizing one of many GitHub containers, then as you trace at, drawback is you have to set up the entire software program that you simply want in an effort to run your processes. So, it’s typically a good suggestion to outline your individual container that’s obtained the software program already put in. You possibly can retailer that on any of the favored container repositories. So you’ll be able to put it up on the Docker hub for instance. After which within the header of your workflow definition, you’d say this runs on; after which give it the trail to your Docker container. After which when the workflow’s triggered, GitHub would pull that container down and begin it up. So that you’ve already obtained all of the software program put in.

Gavin Henry 00:14:19 Yeah, that’s an excellent level as a result of I usually simply run as if I’m sitting at a dev or ubuntu machine otherwise you’ve been to machine all of the app get to put in the various things I want. But when I did my very own container and pushed that to Docker hub or another place, I might simply pull that down and actually scale back a few of my time it takes to run.

Dave Cross 00:14:37 Yeah, that is one thing that I’ve accomplished numerous just lately as a result of I had some Actions whose job was to generate static webpages that had been powered, that had been run in GitHub pages and it was utilizing a module, a Perl module that was being put in on each run and it was taking 5 minutes to get the container prepared in an effort to run the software program that builds the web site. So I simply spent a few hours placing collectively a container that had all of the software program put in, and now these workflows run in a minute or one thing somewhat than six or so seven minutes.

Gavin Henry 00:15:16 Yeah, I suppose it’s a trade-off between you maintaining your individual container updated, you recognize, and –

Dave Cross 00:15:21 Sure, now you’ve obtained yet another factor to take care of.

Gavin Henry 00:15:24 At the least, nicely if there’s no time constraint, I suppose, I do know GitHub does spin off some lengthy issues the place you’ll be able to set how lengthy it runs for. It does the chance to flex the set up course of and ensure it’s at all times working, I suppose, relying on what your undertaking is. However isn’t there the idea of a the place I see that these days? Yeah, from one of many deployment issues that I take advantage of. All proper. And Docker usually, it’s obtained the construct picture, doesn’t it? Does GitHub Actions have the same idea? So cache is the final construct for you?

Dave Cross 00:15:56 Sure. The trustworthy reply is, I don’t know, I’ve by no means observed it as a result of these web sites that I used to be speaking about constructing, it was constructing all the things from scratch each time. Possibly that was simply because I hadn’t turned the cache on.

Gavin Henry 00:16:07 Okay. Maybe.

Dave Cross 00:16:09 However principally, I suppose I’m utilizing the Docker hub as a cache.

Gavin Henry 00:16:12 Sure it’s an analogous factor. I’ll put some hyperlinks within the present notes if I can discover one thing. Anyway, these Actions, are you able to reuse them? Let’s simply return to the the phrase — two phrases: GitHub Actions — and Motion is the workflow definition, isn’t it?

Dave Cross 00:16:28 Effectively, to be trustworthy, I believe GitHub have quietly muddied the water right here. GitHub Actions is what they name this complete function. However when they’re speaking about organising a workflow, they’re very cautious to name it a workflow definition file. So your YAML file is a workflow definition file, the meet, this definition file, as I mentioned, is various jobs that are damaged down into steps. And now every step is both a bit of code you could run, so principally a bit of bash code that runs as if you had been typing it on the command line in your Ubuntu container, or it’s what they name an Motion, which is form of an overloading of the time period as a result of on this case, an Motion is a reusable piece of code that folks could make obtainable on your use in your workflows by placing it in a particular format on GitHub. So Motion actually has two barely completely different meanings within the GitHub ecosystem, however what Actions actually are, it’s nearly like a library, it’s a reusable piece of code you could slot into your steps in your workflow definition.

Gavin Henry 00:17:47 Yeah, simply once I requested that query, it form of muddled it in my head.

Dave Cross 00:17:53 Sure, and that’s utterly comprehensible.

Gavin Henry 00:17:55 Simply to summarize, GitHub Actions is like their product title? The workflow definition that we’re accountable for is what sits in our undertaking. After which if we need to shrink our workflow file or do one thing difficult or simply, you recognize, use one thing that’s utilized by different folks, the precise phrase Actions is what they name the reusable blocks you could name in your workflow file to do one thing that you simply won’t have the ability to do or, you recognize, it saves you time. Trigger you must give it some thought.

Dave Cross 00:18:26 Precisely. For instance, probably the most generally used actions, the motion that’s utilized in just about each workflow file ever, is known as motion/checkout. And you utilize that as one of many steps, one of many first steps in your workflow definition file. And that may take a look at the code of your repo onto the container.

Gavin Henry 00:18:50 And the container definition could be one thing like Ubuntu, Home windows, Mac, relying on what model you need to change on the structure.

Dave Cross 00:18:54 Sure, appropriate.

Gavin Henry 00:18:55 Okay. So I believe we’ve outlined the product. You have got Actions, the workflow, what a workflow file seems like. These of us which have used Ansible, it’s form of comparable and it form of seems like a Docker file as nicely, which we’ve accomplished reveals on. The Motion’s reusable as a result of it’s a separate library, because it had been. The entry mannequin, as a result of we’re utilizing a Docker container, the place’s that container dwelling? Is {that a} root consumer? What does it have entry to the factor that’s operating the code?

Dave Cross 00:19:27 So there’s various completely different ranges to this. As to the place the container runs, I believe GitHub really need you to consider it in the identical means as you’d take into consideration a serverless implementation in AWS. You don’t care about the place the server is operating; it’s simply operating on a container that’s operating on one in all GitHub’s items of {hardware} someplace on the earth. I haven’t come throughout something like areas that AWS have. You possibly can’t say you need it to run in that a part of the world or something like that. It’s only a container that’s operating someplace on the earth. The following degree is that you’re operating as a consumer on that container, and on the GitHub normal containers that they offer you, you’ll be straight in there as root. Clearly, in case you’re constructing your individual container, then that may have completely different setups.

Dave Cross 00:20:24 One confusion that I typically get is switching between a GitHub container and a container that I’ve developed myself is that the GitHub container, like I mentioned, places you in as root after which I change to my very own container and you might be not root. So you must sudo if you need to set up. And each time I make that change, it catches me out. And also you’ll see a few commits once I’m mixing whether or not I want so as to add a sudo or take away a sudo command. In the event you’re not operating as root, you might be operating as a consumer that has entry to root by means of a sudo. However that’s widespread in sufficient inside a container, I suppose. After which the third degree is how is that consumer, what permissions does which have in your GitHub repo? And the reply is, it principally runs as the individual that owns the repo the place it’s hosted, the place the workflow definition file lives.

Dave Cross 00:21:22 You have got a part of the setting that GitHub workflow units up for you. You have got an setting variable, successfully — it’s not fairly an setting variable — referred to as GitHub token, which has entry to the permissions that the proprietor of the repo has to the repo, that are by default going to be all learn and write entry to the repo. However you’ll be able to add a permissions definition each on the job degree and likewise on the particular person step degree to vary the permissions that the workflow has to your repo. So, you’ll be able to in the reduction of the permissions so you’ll be able to’t by accident write to issues that you simply don’t need to write to, for instance.

Gavin Henry 00:22:13 Whenever you go to the settings of a GitHub undertaking and you bought a number of collaborators or workforce members that you simply might need assigned completely different roles to or entry ranges, it’s the GitHub repository proprietor that’s the permission set that’s used for operating the Actions.

Dave Cross 00:22:30 However then after all, relying on what’s occurred — I imply, in case you fork a repo, then the fork is clearly owned by a distinct particular person. So it’s the fork contains the workflow definition information, however they are going to solely have permissions on their fork of the repo somewhat than your foremost copy of the repo.

Gavin Henry 00:22:51 So, in case you’ve obtained any secret definitions, which we’ll contact on, since you’re pulling another repo or you recognize you’re pushing someplace that wants an SSH key or one thing like that, the fork clearly wouldn’t have entry to that setting. So some jobs could fail.

Dave Cross 00:23:06 Sure, however that may be good, in all probability.

Gavin Henry 00:23:07 I’ve not been within the scenario, myself, the place I’ve had to think about that degree of granularity for operating completely different bits of a workflow with completely different permission ranges, in order that’s good to know. Thanks. So that they state — as within the GitHub — that they provide cross-platform assist? What does that imply?

Dave Cross 00:23:25 So it signifies that the GitHub-supplied runners, the containers that we’ve talked about earlier than, they’re obtainable principally in three completely different flavors. There’s a Ubuntu taste, there’s a Home windows taste, and there’s a Mac OS taste. And for every of these, there are some completely different variations obtainable. I’m not solely certain how far again these variations go. So if you arrange a workflow definition, you say what it runs on. One of many issues you are able to do, one of many best methods get a workflow up and operating is simply to say that it runs on Ubuntu, and they’ll simply pull down the newest model of their evenly modified Ubuntu container, and you’ll run it on there. However that additionally work for Home windows and Mac OS. In fact, as a result of you’ll be able to run your individual containers too, there’s nothing to cease you operating on a container that runs a totally completely different OS.

Gavin Henry 00:24:30 So in case you’re not defining Ubunto newest, or Mac OS newest, or no matter, would you place in that line the Docker picture you need to pull, or are you operating your individual Docker picture inside Ubuntu?

Dave Cross 00:24:44 No, no. You run it as a substitute. So sure, the Runs On is both of their labeled for their very own containers or definition of your individual container.

Gavin Henry 00:24:55 Okay. As a result of I’ve seen myself mess up Docker on my workstation right here, which is a Fedora one. I’ve then used digital field to run a Debian factor after which run Docker inside that. So I believed it was one thing like that.

Dave Cross 00:25:07 No, I don’t consider so, no.

Gavin Henry 00:25:09 I’ve personally been caught this week and final week on a few the tasks once I use Ubuntu newest or Mac OS newest or one thing and I’ve had to return to a hard and fast model as a result of they’ve modified what the newest tag is. After which all of the libraries you rely on or completely different environmental variables or the bundled model of Python or Homebrew or one thing has modified and all of your stuff breaks.

Dave Cross 00:25:32 Yeah, I can perceive that. What they’ll do is in case you go to every Motion — or every workflow, to be correct — and every run of that workflow has a web page in your repo. And so, in case you go to that workflow, when these adjustments are imminent, there will likely be a discover that seems fairly clearly on the backside of that web page saying you might be utilizing Ubuntu newest; in three weeks’ time. That may go from being 22.04 to 23.04 or one thing like that. So that they do attempt to move that data on. However sure, in case you are…

Gavin Henry 00:26:10 I didn’t know that trigger to one thing again final week.

Dave Cross 00:26:14 And clearly, if you wish to be actually cautious in regards to the model that you’re utilizing, then yeah it would be best to give model quantity somewhat than newest.

Gavin Henry 00:26:25 No, it’s a tough one as a result of it’s flexing your software program on a distinct model of the platform. So it’s form of good in a means, however it’s noise since you haven’t modified any of your code probably.

Dave Cross 00:26:36 Sure. However then, presumably the folks which are utilizing your software program will likely be updating their OS in some unspecified time in the future. So that you do need to learn about these breakages.

Gavin Henry 00:26:45 Yeah, precisely. Comparable when it’s an open-source undertaking, you simply don’t need that purple icon in your undertaking both. So it provides you the previous damaged home windows philosophy. So, do you could have any idea of how scalable and performant Github actions are, in your expertise?

Dave Cross 00:27:03 I’m probably not certain in what means it wants be scalable. Are you picturing a repo that fires off occasions each few seconds that begin operating a workflow?

Gavin Henry 00:27:14 I’m interested by possibly that is only a case of placing a hyperlink into the obtainable photos that GitHub have and what number of CPUs they offer to a container and the way a lot RAM, you recognize. Say you’ve obtained a extremely RAM heavy undertaking, will that run or, you recognize, will you must pay extra to get that, or will it simply take half-hour as a substitute?

Dave Cross 00:27:32 Yeah, to be trustworthy, I’m undecided what measurement the containers are that they’re operating.

Gavin Henry 00:27:38 Okay, I’ll dig that out.

Dave Cross 00:27:41 Efficiency, nicely we’ve already talked earlier in regards to the velocity up that I obtained from switching from utilizing one in all their containers to utilizing a container that I’d constructed myself that had already obtained the software program put in on it. The opposite factor you could take into consideration there may be you’ll be able to management what the workflow does when issues fail. You would possibly need to fail as rapidly as potential. If one thing goes unsuitable, then there’s no level in carrying on. So you can also make issues — possibly not sooner, however cease operating sooner — so that you get the outcomes faster by controlling the error circulate.

Gavin Henry 00:28:19 Yeah. That provides you an excellent indication if one thing you’ve accomplished has taken too lengthy and you’ll set it to bail out as nicely.

Dave Cross 00:28:26 Yeah. And you may as well, as you talked about earlier, there’s outing, and I believe the default outing is one thing like three minutes, however you’ll be able to convey that in if you would like.

Gavin Henry 00:28:34 Excellent, thanks. I believe we’ve talked about it a few instances, however if you wish to retailer passwords for — secrets and techniques is the overall time period — credentials in there as a result of you must go and fetch one thing or push one thing out in your steady deployment, how would you go about that?

Dave Cross 00:28:52 So, in case you go to the settings in your repo, you will discover that there’s a secrets and techniques merchandise on the menu, and you’ll go in there and you’ll fill in secrets and techniques which are simply key-value pairs. And I’m no safety knowledgeable, however GitHub inform us that that data is saved in very safe method on their servers. Clearly, it must be a reversible encryption in order that then get entry to the worth in order that they’ll use them. However they exist at three completely different ranges. You possibly can have secrets and techniques on the group degree. So, if in case you have secrets and techniques which are shared throughout repos in your group or in your consumer, possibly API keys which are utilized by completely different items of software program in your group, or individually on the repo degree. And likewise you’ll be able to outline environments towards your repo, which implies you could have an setting, a staging setting and a manufacturing setting, and you’ll say that this workflow is operating on this setting, after which you’ll be able to maybe entry a distinct model of the key, relying on which of the environments it’s working in. So that you might need a distinct API key for growth and manufacturing for instance.

Gavin Henry 00:30:24 That’s why I really like doing these reveals as a result of I at all times be taught one thing I didn’t know. I’ve been attempting to my head round tips on how to do one thing for somethin I’m engaged on for the time being.

Dave Cross 00:30:34 That’s good, that’s good. In the event you go to the settings in addition to secrets and techniques and issues like that, there’s an setting choice, and you’ll go in there and simply arrange as many alternative environments.

Gavin Henry 00:30:43 Possibly I’ve simply fed my imposter syndrome some extra ideas there. So, do we all know the place these actions or containers run? Is it on GitHub’s infrastructure or … trigger it’s Microsoft Azure or one thing like that? Do they inform us something about that?

Dave Cross 00:31:00 I don’t know that it’s a secret. I’ve by no means appeared into it in any element. So I don’t know is the trustworthy reply to that. As I discussed earlier, I believe they want you to consider it in a serverless means. It’s only a container that runs someplace, and also you get some outcomes again.

Gavin Henry 00:31:16 Have you learnt if there’s an choice to run the container on a few of your individual stuff, like a half on-prem sort answer?

Dave Cross 00:31:22 I used to be nearly to say that there’s the choice to run a self-hosted runner.

Gavin Henry 00:31:27 Do you need to simply outline a runner?

Dave Cross 00:31:29 A runner is the container that runs your workflow.

Gavin Henry 00:31:34 Cool. Yeah, I’m aware of that from GitLab sort.

Dave Cross 00:31:37 Yeah. Yeah, so you’ll be able to, once more, it’s one in all this stuff you could go into your, I believe it’s at your repo degree, you’ll be able to outline self-hosted runners, and so they offer you a bit of software program that you simply then want to put in on wherever you’re going to run stuff regionally. And that then communicates with the GitHub servers and does no matter GitHub needs you to do. Yeah. You possibly can run GitHub workflow runners by yourself {hardware} if you would like.

Gavin Henry 00:32:06 And that’ll pull down their photos and issues like that.

Dave Cross 00:32:08 Yeah. Two most blatant causes for doing that may be safety. You have got stuff you actually don’t need to have operating on GitHub’s servers, and secondly prices, as a result of they don’t cost you for operating stuff by yourself {hardware}.

Gavin Henry 00:32:24 And I suppose, yeah, I imply that what you talked about earlier than, constructing your individual picture to run your individual jobs on signifies that you recognize precisely what’s in that picture as nicely. We did a number of reveals on provide chain safety. So that may assist validate and show for any eyes or laws or our bodies that you simply’re in to say we’re in full management.

Dave Cross 00:32:44 Yeah, I imply you say that however I’ve definitely by no means constructed a Docker container that hasn’t been constructed on high of any individual else’s Docker container. In order that’s value interested by.

Gavin Henry 00:32:55 Yeah, usually simply pulling one thing slim/slim or you recognize, one in all these ones which have spent ages constructing all of the completely different bits that Perl wants or, you recognize, ELECTRA wants, or one thing like that. Okay. That just about completed off that part earlier than we transfer on to the instance undertaking. The runners are good instance you could simply use their infrastructure however run in your machines. Yeah. So then you definitely’re accountable for safety, {hardware}, assets; you’ll want an excellent web connection to drag down the pictures the primary time no less than.

Dave Cross 00:33:28 Sure.

Gavin Henry 00:33:29 Okay. So going to maneuver on to the final little bit of our present. I believe we’ve accomplished an amazing exploration and definition of GitHub actions, which is the product title. Then we’ve obtained the workflow that we’re a controller of the file, the YAML file, after which the precise key phrases time period Actions, which is issues we will use within the, within the GitHub Actions market to run stuff for us. We then decide of whether or not we need to use inventory containers or pull in our personal, whether or not we need to run these on GitHub’s infrastructure and probably pay for that utilization above and past what we get totally free. Or if we’re for instance a financial institution or comparable, we’d need to use the free runner service the place we set up a binary on our personal working system and that pulls down the pictures. So, let’s scoop all that up and undergo a undertaking that you simply’ve labored on otherwise you’ve examine that benefited from GitHub actions. So have you ever obtained one thing in thoughts from that we might wrap about?

Dave Cross 00:34:26 There’s a few issues that possibly we will speak about, however I believed possibly, I imply all of us hopefully perceive the CICD factor, so I believe we’d contact on a few different makes use of for it. Have you learnt the software program developer Simon Willison? Have you ever had him on? It is best to get him on in some unspecified time in the future.

Gavin Henry 00:34:47 I’ll take a look.

Dave Cross 00:34:47 He got here up with an idea he calls Git-scraping, which is powered by actions. He has a bit of software program referred to as Datasette, which is sweet for taking a look at SQLite databases, and Git-scraping is a means of constructing these databases. And what he does is he makes use of the cron job performance for triggering issues and he’ll discover a web site that’s obtained attention-grabbing knowledge within the type of a JSON file and he’ll go away and within the GitHub workflow he’ll scrape that JSON file, after which use Git to do a diff between that and the earlier model. After which he’ll, nicely, clearly Git will give him a historical past of the adjustments within the knowledge. So, I imply he’s doing issues like he’s speaking about web sites which are monitoring forest fires in California and stuff like that. After which he can, by taking the variations and placing them in his SQLite database and utilizing his magic Datasette software program, it builds web sites that allow you to plot that knowledge on a graph or construct varied attention-grabbing ways in which the information has modified over time.

Dave Cross 00:35:56 In order that’s I believe is sort of enjoyable and completely different use of GitHub Actions. I suppose principally you need to understand that what they’re doing is GitHub are providing you with free entry to operating cron tabs on their service. So something that you can imagine that may be a schedule, do some stuff after which retailer it both in GitHub or in a database, is one thing that you are able to do from GitHub actions. So you recognize, the sky’s the restrict there actually. One other factor I’ve accomplished, you talked about proper initially that I used to be concerned within the Perl neighborhood, and so you recognize about CPAN; a few of your listeners won’t understand that CPAN is the repository of free Perl libraries — sorry, add-on code on your Perl packages. And the POLE neighborhood in CPAN may be very eager on they do a number of unit testing.

Dave Cross 00:36:57 So I constructed a website referred to as CPAN dashboard, which anybody who writes CPAN modules can create a pull request to my website, including them themselves to my website. And principally all we want is their CPAN username. After which the positioning makes use of GitHub actions to run some software program which pulls details about all of their CPAN modules from CPAN. So makes use of the meta CPAN API after which produces an inventory of all of their modules and — oh, in addition they want to inform me which CI instruments they’re utilizing, whether or not it’s GitHub Actions or Travis CI or Circle CI — and it then goes away on a schedule and interrogates all of these companies and builds badges for all of these modules on the entire CI companies that that writer makes use of. So, it produces a somewhat good visible illustration of all of the modules that the authors have written and the way nicely they’re doing on the assorted CI companies. As a CPAN writer myself, I take advantage of that if I’ve obtained a day the place I’ve obtained nothing a lot to do, I would go and take a look at among the badges on that and see the place my software program might be improved.

Gavin Henry 00:38:24 Thanks Dave. So simply to summarize, as a result of I need to go over an instance undertaking that you simply mentioned in your e-book. So constructing a static web site. Simply to summarize these two examples as a result of I believe they’re nice displaying the utterly two alternative ways to do issues. The primary one makes use of the cron job operate of GitHub actions. So it goes off and pairs an internet site, does a diff in Git after which does the various things that Simon needs to do. I’ll put in a hyperlink into the present up for something you could give me about that too. And the second is a website that you simply run in collaboration with CPAN and met CPAN the place anybody can use the pull request on Motion within the GitHub workflow file to run and set off a couple of various things primarily based on the truth that they forked your repository and create a pull request after which off all of it goes. In order that will likely be a large time saving for you in the neighborhood as nicely.

Gavin Henry 00:39:13 So, something you can provide me for the present notes for that, that may be nice.

Dave Cross 00:39:57 Certain.

Gavin Henry 00:39:18 I do know it may be a easy undertaking, instance undertaking, however simply to scoop up all the things we’ve mentioned for the form of final quarter-hour, let’s undergo a static web site. If we might spotlight the handbook stuff you’d usually do after which what you are able to do with the GitHub actions bearing on the occasion you’re going to make use of, secrets and techniques you’re going to have to consider, whether or not you’re going to should entry the rest that isn’t on GitHub, and the way you handle that. That’d be nice.

Dave Cross 00:39:46 So yeah, static web sites are in some ways fairly uninteresting as a result of you’ll be able to really do this with out GitHub actions in any respect. I’ve been coping with what I name semi-static web sites, that are a little bit bit extra attention-grabbing. In the event you keep in mind was fairly in style within the possibly 15 years in the past, the thought of a Planet web site. Python had a bit of software program referred to as PlanetPlanet, which principally what you do is you’re taking RSS feeds, internet feeds, from varied sources and also you combination them and also you construct an internet site that’s principally a information web page for a selected subject. Possibly you’re inquisitive about Dr. Who, for instance, and there are numerous web sites that publish information about Dr Who, and completely different tales will seem throughout the day.

Gavin Henry 00:40:33 Yeah, I used to love these, ones on Postgres or any open-source ones or no matter you’re taking a look at.

Dave Cross 00:40:39 So I’ve obtained a couple of websites that work like this. So, principally you could have a easy GitHub workflow that largely work on the cron job foundation. Each three hours, for instance, it wakes up, it pulls within the RSS feeds from the half a dozen web sites that you simply’re speaking about. It then combines these RSS feeds into a brand new RSS feed, which it publishes. And likewise utilizing in all probability the template toolkit — ’trigger I nonetheless use Perl for lots of my private stuff — it’s going to construct an index.html and publish that to a Github web site. So it rebuilds the entire thing each few hours. However the different factor that it does is, that is clearly pushed from a configuration file. It may very well be a database, however I take advantage of a text-based configuration file, which lists the entire feeds that I’m aggregating — and clearly that may change, I would edit that, add a brand new feed or a feed has gone away so that you delete it or feeds transfer and stuff like that. And so it, the GitHub workflow definition has an ON tag which seems for pushes. So a commit that has been pushed to the repo, however you’ll be able to additional filter the push by saying, I would like you to set off for a push, however solely when the push touches this explicit file. So when the push features a change to the definition file, the config file, then it fires and rebuilds the web site pulling within the new feed or shedding the previous damaged feed or no matter.

Gavin Henry 00:42:29 That’s precisely what I’ve been in search of, as nicely. Yesterday, I’ve obtained a undertaking I’m engaged on, which is a couple of new SaaS factor that’s explicit to my sector, however it’s obtained the advertising internet pages as a part of the primary website that has all of the API backend stuff. So once I make a front-end change to say a contact web page or a pricing web page, I don’t actually need to run the entire take a look at suite. And burn by means of any minutes I’ve obtained or something like that. In order that’s given me the right concept to simply say, you recognize, if something in these folders, if that’s an choice, get touched, then run the GitHub motion information.

Dave Cross 00:43:06 So any of those triggers that fireplace your workflow, all of them have varied forms of filters on them.

Gavin Henry 00:43:15 Yeah, I believed it was an all or nothing trigger it’s been driving me psychological. Yeah. Sorry, attempting to think about, I don’t need to see that fail as a result of I’m altering this. That’s, and for the occasion workflows, so that you’ve defined there that there’s a cron job that runs each three hours to go off and fetch the RSS feeds; it then will decide to, I presume, one other repository, which is the Github pages?

Dave Cross 00:43:38 Effectively really no. That is one thing that I’ve taught myself just lately as a result of it was inflicting me an issue. Github pages can work in a number of alternative ways. They’ll serve the web site from a distinct department, or they’ll serve it from a slash docs listing from the primary department, or from the route listing. For issues like this the place I’ve obtained some processing, I take the highest the slash docs method the place I’ve obtained all of the code possibly within the route listing after which it runs stuff and it dumps the completed web site into the docs folder, after which it commits that new file from the docs folder into the repo. Now that’s a little bit of an issue as a result of that is operating round each three hours committing a brand new model of the index file and the brand new RSS feed file. So, I discovered it causes a few issues.

Dave Cross 00:44:37 Firstly, it signifies that each time that I’m going to my checkout of that repo on my native disc, I’ve to at all times keep in mind to start out with a Git pull as a result of there have been so many adjustments because the final time I labored on that file. So I must make it possible for the repo is updated. And secondly, and this won’t be seen as an issue by some folks, however I used to be discovering that a few my repos had been probably the most dedicated GitHub repos within the UK for the entire of final 12 months as a result of it was, nicely they had been operating so many automated commits, and it’s form of low-cost trigger I’m not really writing these, not that the variety of Github commits you do must be seen as a recreation of any form. However it was like, it was nearly like I used to be dishonest at profitable on the recreation.

Dave Cross 00:45:27 However it seems that you simply don’t really must retailer the web site that you simply’ve constructed within the repo. One of many issues that we haven’t touched on, ’trigger there’s a number of GitHub motion stuff we haven’t had time to the touch on, however one of many issues we haven’t touched on is a factor referred to as artifacts. So you’ll be able to generate what principally finally ends up as a zipped-up tar ball. It will get saved as an artifact on GitHub servers, and you’ll management how lengthy that artifact is saved for. However principally, in case you go to the webpage inside your repo for a GitHub workflow run and it generated an artifact, you’ll be able to obtain that artifact to your native machine and look at it.

Gavin Henry 00:46:11 Is that artifact one thing that you simply’ve advised it to generate? Or is {that a} common time period for…?

Dave Cross 00:46:15 There’s a GitHub motion referred to as Construct Artifact or one thing like that.

Gavin Henry 00:46:20 Would, that be a binary or one thing to deploy or?

Dave Cross 00:46:23 No, that’s, we talked in regards to the Actions earlier. The libraries that you should utilize inside your workflow. That’s one in all these. You simply give it the trail to the file or information that you simply need to go within the zip file.

Gavin Henry 00:46:37 Are you able to give me an instance of what could be in that?

Dave Cross 00:46:39 I take advantage of it, for instance, if you’re putting in a CPAN module. I imply, that is in all probability true for different languages as nicely. If there are errors, it writes a log file. However trigger it’s written that log file in your container, which has then ceased to exist when the run finishes, if a module didn’t set up efficiently, then you definitely don’t know why it was damaged. You don’t know what went unsuitable. So in case you create an artifact, you say — I talked earlier about controlling the error circulate and one of many issues you are able to do on an error is take the log information and bundle them up into an artifact.

Gavin Henry 00:47:16 This could be extra obvious as a result of usually if one thing fails, I’ve skilled, you’ll be able to go into the failed job and develop the debug logs and see it. However I presume that’s provided that you’re spitting out the logs to straightforward error or you recognize, you’re operating a step-by-step to get put in, but when it’s by yourself container or one thing and that’s gone. The logs aren’t spit out.

Dave Cross 00:47:39 It will get irritating as a result of it says putting in this module failed; for full particulars, see this file. After which it provides you a path to a file that not exists. You create an artifact, give it the trail to the place you recognize that file goes to be created, and it bundles up any information it finds shops these on GitHub servers, and you’ll then have a hyperlink to obtain that artifact on the webpage for that run. So you’ll be able to obtain it and look at it at your leisure.

Gavin Henry 00:48:11 So simply going again to this instance undertaking, we’ve obtained a cron job definition to run, let’s say each three hours. You’ve obtained one other occasion there that runs one thing in case you do a push to a sure config file, ’trigger you’ve accomplished that degree of granularity, not only a push to the entire undertaking, which is how I’ve at all times accomplished it, which I didn’t even know you could possibly do, which is wonderful to be taught at this time. Can you could have extra definitions as many as you need there? That granularity? And also you’ve additionally put the artifact job on this undertaking as nicely.

Dave Cross 00:48:43 Sure. So you’ll be able to have a number of keys beneath the On command. So in truth, if you concentrate on it, the job that you have to run within the cron job is regenerating the web site. The job that you have to run when the configuration file adjustments is rebuild the web site in precisely the identical means.

Gavin Henry 00:49:04 However once I inform it to, as a result of there’s an occasion that’s triggered it, which is the push?

Dave Cross 00:49:08 So the one factor that’s completely different is the way in which that it’s triggered. So for these semi-static planet information, they usually all have three keys within the On set off. The cron tab one, in case you’ve modified the config file one, which could additionally — the opposite factor that may change is I would tweak the template for the index.html file, the template that generates the webpage. So clearly if I alter that, I must regenerate the file as nicely. But additionally I’ll put within the workflow dispatch key as nicely as a result of I simply need to have that button seem which means I can manually run it every time I would like, which frequently helps with debugging or one thing like that.

Gavin Henry 00:49:50 That’s helped me out as nicely as a result of I’ve additionally, I’ve been within the level the place I’ve obtained a criminal offense job that runs a static code evaluation on one in all my tasks. So once I make a commit, I’ve to attend until the following day to go and precisely see the outcomes for a few of it. Yeah, I didn’t know in regards to the dispatch factor as a result of I’ve at all times solely rerun them in case you go into the Motion output and click on rerun all jobs or rerun failed jobs. In order that’s nice.

Dave Cross 00:50:14 We’ve obtained three completely different triggers, however all of them have the identical impact, which signifies that I can put all of them in the identical workflow definition file, which is simply referred to as construct.YAML or one thing like that. Simply that there are 3 ways to set off that. Both there’s a push on one of many vital information, or it’s cron job, or I simply press the button and all three of these occasions have the identical motion, the identical impact.

Gavin Henry 00:50:42 They usually might have entry to completely different secrets and techniques at completely different ranges since you’ve clicked the button. You might need.

Dave Cross 00:50:48 They may do. Sure. Sure. I imply there’s all types of different issues you are able to do. So you could have, in addition to entry to secrets and techniques, you could have entry issues referred to as contexts, which is details about that run. And one of many context is the GitHub context, like a hash or a dictionary, it’s referred to as GitHub dot one thing and the dot one thing would be the repo title or the actor who’s the title of the one who triggered the run, the precise GitHub username — the Git reference that the motion is engaged on.

Dave Cross 00:51:23 Simply all these items of details about what really triggered the run. So you’ll be able to, though you’ve obtained the identical workflow that’s triggered on three various things, one of many issues that you could possibly take a look at throughout the GitHub context is what the occasion was that triggered. So you’ll be able to take completely different actions in case you needed to.

Gavin Henry 00:51:44 Okay. Is there a distinction of what you are able to do in case your a repository is a public one — say trigger it’s your web site or it’s an open-source undertaking — versus a non-public one?

Dave Cross 00:51:54 I haven’t seen any distinction. There’s a distinction in pricing.

Gavin Henry 00:51:58 Yeah, I believe you must pay on your personal non-public stuff.

Dave Cross 00:52:00 All of the pricing is completed on principally the variety of minutes of container time that you simply use. And as I’ve obtained a professional account, so inside my non-public repos throughout all of my non-public repos, I get one thing like 3000 minutes of free time each month and something over that, it will get billed to me and it’s fractions of a penny per minute.

Gavin Henry 00:52:23 Thanks. Going again to your instance of the 3 ways you could possibly deploy a GitHub static website, I presume that may presumably change your growth course of since you’ve obtained these various things you could solely entry a sure means. Is it one thing you want to remember if you’re utilizing GitHub actions that issues work a sure means, or it sounds prefer it’s extraordinarily versatile given the,

Dave Cross 00:52:46 I can’t consider a counter instance. I believe all of my code that I’ve written to run inside GitHub actions is all utterly agnostic about the truth that it’s operating inside a GitHub motion, if that is smart. It’s code that I can run fairly fortunately outdoors of GitHub actions. It doesn’t depend on something within the setting that it will get from GitHub actions. That stuff, the entire GitHub Motion stuff, goes within the workflow definition file, not really within the code which I’m operating. So I don’t suppose I’ve wanted to vary the way in which that I’ve written software program.

Gavin Henry 00:53:28 Thanks. I presume this might simply come all the way down to the truth that you must keep in mind if you’re doing all of your testing, you’re not in manufacturing. In order that’s a separate factor from what you are able to do in Github actions. You simply should do issues the way in which and use your fixtures and all types of various stuff. Okay. That finishes off the instance undertaking part properly, which was your planet cron job scrapes RSS feeds each three hours. Do one thing primarily based on the push and your artifacts, which I believe gave us a pleasant overview of many of the completely different components of GitHub actions. There’s one fast query that I believe we’ve obtained time for earlier than I shut us off is in your e-book and earlier on within the present you talked about what you could possibly do, otherwise you talked about when any individual raises a problem you could possibly do one thing. What’s that? Is it a workflow the place if any individual opens a problem in your undertaking?

Dave Cross 00:54:17 Yeah, so one of many triggers is, I can’t keep in mind what the title of the set off is, however you get a problem raised and in that occasion the GitHub context that I simply talked about could be packed filled with all types of details about the problem, just like the textual content of the problem and any tags that it’s been given.

Gavin Henry 00:54:37 Oh, so simply going again to the context, that’s a set of setting variables that you could possibly pull on that particular to that occasion, scenario. Ah, that makes extra sense.

Dave Cross 00:54:49 Yeah. So you could possibly add different tag to the problem. Oh, one good factor that I’ve seen is, you recognize issues about the individual that raised the problem. You possibly can know whether or not it’s the primary time that this GitHub consumer has raised a problem towards this undertaking, and you’ll ship them a pleasant welcoming e mail or add a remark to the problem saying, thanks, welcome to the undertaking. It’s at all times good to have new folks. There’s a couple of issues that you are able to do round that to simply form of routinely welcome folks into the undertaking.

Gavin Henry 00:55:23 Glorious, thanks. So yeah, I believe we’ve accomplished an amazing job of overlaying why you need to use or develop your use of GitHub actions.

Dave Cross 00:55:31 Which you need to do by shopping for my e-book .

Gavin Henry 00:55:33 Yeah, precisely. I’ll be certain there’s a hyperlink within the present notes for that. Trigger I’ve loved, studying by means of all the things I realized a lot greater than I believed I knew anyway. However now’s your alternative to spotlight anybody factor that you simply’d desire a software program engineer to recollect from our present.

Dave Cross 00:55:50 Can I’ve two issues?

Gavin Henry 00:55:51 Yeah.

Dave Cross 00:55:51 One factor that I believe is value mentioning is that I do know a number of groups have already got a number of useful resource invested in current CICD options. They’ll have already got duff in Circle CI or Jenkins or stuff like that. Effectively, GitHub have produced a factor referred to as the GitHub actions importer, which lets you simply transfer your workflows from a distinct system into GitHub actions. In order that’s an excellent, that’s a simple technique to strive issues out. The principle factor is CI and CD are nice and everybody must be utilizing them, however GitHub motion isn’t simply that. As I mentioned earlier, GitHub actions provides you entry to containers operating on GitHub {hardware}, and the sky actually is the restrict in what you are able to do with it. And I’d love to listen to about any attention-grabbing issues that folks find yourself doing.

Gavin Henry 00:56:50 Yeah, there have been two nice examples of tasks that I didn’t take into consideration with the cron issues. So thanks for that. And also you’re my first visitor that’s ever had two issues within the part that I see .

Dave Cross 00:57:03 I’m a insurgent.

Gavin Henry 00:57:04 So the place can folks discover out extra? They’ll observe you on Twitter, which I’ve put within the present notes. Is that what you favor, or is there wherever else to get in contact?

Dave Cross 00:57:14 Yeah, I’m on Twitter. I’m additionally on mastadon —, I believe. On most social media I take advantage of the identical tag, which is @davorg. I’m even on that on LinkedIn. So if anyone needs to the touch base me on LinkedIn. If they need speak about extra skilled issues, then possibly that’s the suitable place.

Gavin Henry 00:57:38 Thanks Dave. Thanks for approaching the present. It’s been an actual pleasure.

Dave Cross 00:57:41 It’s been an actual pleasure.

Gavin Henry 00:57:42 That is Gavin Henry for Software program Engineering Radio. Thanks for listening. [End of Audio]

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